Glass Fiber Reinforcement in Concrete

This project was undertaken to understand the complete functioning of the glass reinforcements in concrete. The objectives of this project report are to study the flexural and compressive behavior of the glass reinforcement with respect to steel rebar.

Analysis of the beams using GFRP (Glass fiber reinforced polymer) rebar as reinforcement, role of glass fiber reinforcement in the sustainable world and its utility to the society.

This study will cover and give a brief about the glass fiber rebar’s, its properties, design,analysis,uses and the effect on cost when used for construction purposes. This study would also focus on the advantages of these glass fiber rebar’s over steel rebar when casted with ordinary concrete and glass fiber reinforced concrete.

In the final part of this report results, calculations and observations are compiled on the basis of actual testing that give a base to glass fiber reinforcements that it can be used as reinforcing bar in the future in various structures.

Team : Bhanu Pratap, Abhinav Panwar, Rubina Siddiqui, Tanveer Singh Ahuja

Management of Industrial Solid Waste by Producing Artificial Aggregates

Aggregates are primarily naturally occurring, inert granular materials. Aggregates have an amazing variety of uses. Imagine our lives without roads, bridges, streets, bricks, concrete, wallboard, and roofing tiles. Every small town or big city and every road connecting them were built and are maintained with aggregates. Due to continuous usage of naturally available aggregate within a short length of time, these natural resources get depleted and it will be left nothing for future generations. The environmental impacts of crushed stone aggregates are a source of increasing concern in many parts of the country. The impact includes loss of forest, noise, dust, vibration and pollution hazards. Concerned about the depletion of natural sources and the effects on the environment, this necessitates the complete replacement or partial replacement of natural aggregates to bring down the escalating construction costs and therefore comes the use of artificial aggregate.

The world is much interested in the innovative production of alternate material in construction industry recently using industrial solid waste, the large scale utilization of these industrial solid waste reduces environmental pollution and dwindling natural resources. The aim of this study was to prepare artificial aggregate by industrial solid waste and the properties of artificial aggregates have been tested and compared with natural aggregates as per Indian Standards (IS).
Materials used were fly ash (35%), marble sludge powder (10%), quarry dust (25%), cement (30%) and water (25%) of the total weight of the materials. The artificial aggregates were prepared of round and angular shapes by the compaction with the help of hands. Then allowed them to dry in air for 24 hours and get cured up to 7 days. The total weight of artificial aggregates prepared was 15 kg.

Based on the experimental study carried on artificial aggregate it was concluded that the rounded shape of artificial aggregates gives better workability compared to the angular natural aggregates. The crushing value, abrasion value and impact value of artificial aggregate was 28.6%, 29.12% and 18.36% respectively which was within the allowable permissible limit as per IS-2386 (Part 4) but the water absorption and specific gravity of artificial aggregate were 6.3% and 3.3 respectively which was greater than the allowable permissible limit as per IS-2386 (Part 3). The compressive strength of concrete after 7, 14 and 28 days of curing was 17.56 N/mm2, 22.45 N/mm2 and 24.78 N/mm2 respectively which was within the allowable permissible limit as per IS-516 (1959).

The study revealed that the artificial aggregates are economical and environmental friendly and are a good alternative for civil engineering works and management for industrial solid waste. The addition of artificial aggregate has a reasonable cut down in the construction costs and gain good attention due to quality on par with conventional or natural aggregates.

Team : Amit Krishan, Gaurav Pandey, Kapil Gupta, Mohd. Umair, Zainul Abdden

Pervious Concrete: A Solution for Ground Water Management

Pervious concrete is a type of porous pavement surface that can be used as an infiltration practice for storm water management. It has an open-graded structure and consists of carefully controlled portions of small stone aggregate, cement, water, and admixtures. The open-graded structure of the concrete promotes rapid passage of water and allows it to infiltrate underlying soils. Pervious concrete, already recognized as a best management practice by the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1999), has the potential to become a popular alternative for dealing with storm-water runoff. Pervious concrete is a type of porous pavement surface that can be used as an infiltration practice for storm water management. It has an open-graded structure and consists of carefully controlled portions of small stone aggregate, cement, water, and admixtures. The open-graded structure of the concrete promotes rapid passage of water and allows it to infiltrate underlying soils. Pervious concrete, already recognized as a best management practice by the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1999), has the potential to become a popular alternative for dealing with storm-water runoff.

One of the main objectives of this project was to develop preliminary specifications for high quality pervious concrete suitable for used as permeable surface which helps in increasing the groundwater recharge with proper strength. Investigations were conducted to check the structural strength and durability characteristics of pervious concrete through the use of different mixture proportions.

The mixture proportion included Portland cement, coarse aggregate and fine aggregates by different weights. So from these materials, different specimens are made for checking the engineering properties.

Pervious concrete specimens were tested for density, void content, porosity, compressive strength and infiltration rate. Four different samples of different mixture proportions (only weight of fine sand is changed i.e. 7%, 15%, 25%, and 35% of the total aggregates) are tested for these tests. Compression test is done on the compression testing machine by applying hydraulic load and this test is done after 7 days. Infiltration rate is determined by the use of single ring infiltrometer procedure and the rate is calculated by using formula. This test is done on the 40 cm x 40 cm pervious concrete block.

So, by getting all the values of the samples, different relationships are generated for discussing the results of the test performed on the four samples. The relationship involves compressive strength-void ratio, void ratio-density, compressive strength-sand by weight and other relationships The study found that of the different samples tested, sample having Portland cement, coarse aggregate and fine sand (7% by total wt.) had the largest infiltration rate. This sample also has satisfactory strength which can bear the small load. Density of the sample is also good.

Team : Amit Krishan, Kartik Pandey, Vishal Mahour, Rajat Goyal, Ankush Sharma

Reusability of Construction & Demolition waste in bricks

Construction and Demolition (C&D) waste is one of the major components of the solid waste and is defined as a waste stream resulting from the construction, renovation and demolition of structures such as buildings, roads, and bridges. Although landfill disposal of C&D waste is not a preferred method for C&D waste management, a significant portion of C&D waste is disposed of in the landfills. Apart from the environmental and health risks, the landfill disposal of C&D waste also consumes a considerable amount of landfill volume. Due to the high construction cost and scarcity of land, it is important to take eco-friendly measures to save landfill volumes. Hence, diversion of C&D waste from the main waste stream can substantially help in gaining more land area. This is achieved by developing a sustainable construction material (brick) using construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Cement and fly ash were brought in use as a binder along with C&D waste as a replacement for natural coarse and fine aggregates.

In the present study construction and demolition waste brick of size 225 mm × 115 mm × 75 mm was developed for the two different compositions (F-type & C- type). Physio-mechanical tests (compressive strength and water absorption) were carried out as per Indian Standards for the considered composition. The test results are compared to commercially available clay bricks. Amongst the various trials carried out the C-type brick with the ratio of the binder, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate as 1:2.75:2.25 exhibit compressive strength (9.91 N/m2) and water absorption (8.8%) within the limits of Indian Standards with minimum self-weight (3.6 kg). The developed sustainable product can be practically implemented over any specific location by the manufacturer which serves the purpose of solid waste management.

Team : Amit Krishan, Mohit Agarwal, Rachit Kapoor, Piyush Yadav

Self-Healing Concrete

Concrete which forms major components in the construction Industry as it is cheap, easily available and convenient to cast. But drawback of these materials is it is weak in tension so, it cracks under sustained loading and due to aggressive environmental agents which ultimately reduce the life of the structure which are built using these materials. Synthetic materials like epoxies are used for remediation but, they are not compatible, costly, reduce aesthetic appearance and need constant maintenance. Therefore, bacterial induced Calcium Carbonate (calcite) precipitation has been proposed as an alternative and environment friendly crack remediation and hence improvement of strength of building materials.

Self-healing concrete is a product that will biologically produce limestone to heal cracks that appear on the surface of concrete structures. Specially selected types of the bacteria genus Bacillus, along with a calcium-based nutrient known as calcium lactate, and nitrogen and phosphorus, are added to the ingredients of the concrete when it is being mixed.
These self-healing agents can lie dormant within the concrete for up to 200 years. This project aims at creating chemically and biologically enhanced concrete. This concrete has a special property of healing its own cracks without any maintenance or care whenever they appear in concrete.

Bacteria used
• Bacillus pasteurii
• Bacillus subtilis

Preparation of bacterial solution
• Primarily 12.5g of Nutrient broth (media) is added to a 500ml conical flask containing distilled water.
• It is then covered with a thick cotton plug and is made air tight with paper and rubber band.
• It is then sterilized using a cooker for about 10-20 minutes. Now the solution is free from any contaminants and the solution is clear orange in colour before the addition of the bacteria.
• Later the flasks are opened up and an exactly 1ml of the bacterium is added to the sterilized flask and is kept in a shaker at a speed of 150- 200 rpm overnight.
• After 24 hours the bacterial solution was found to be whitish yellow turbid solution

Preparation of bacterial concrete
Bacterial concrete can be prepared in two ways
• By direct application
• By encapsulation in light weight concrete

Mechanism of self-healing concrete
When a concrete structure is damaged and water starts to seep through the cracks that appear in the concrete, the spores of the bacteria germinate on contact with the water and nutrients. Having been activated, the bacteria start to feed on the calcium lactate. As the bacteria feeds oxygen is consumed and the soluble calcium lactate is converted to insoluble limestone. The limestone solidifies on the cracked surface, thereby sealing it up. It mimics the process by which bone fractures in the human body are naturally healed by osteoblast cells that mineralize to re-form the bone.
The consumption of oxygen during the bacterial conversion of calcium lactate to limestone has an additional advantage. Oxygen is an essential element in the process of corrosion of steel and when the bacterial activity has consumed it all it increases the durability of steel reinforced concrete constructions.

Team : Nikhil Kumar, Mayank Yadav, Shubham Kumar, Yoginder Kumar, Sajal Verma

Ultra High Performance Concrete

The project is about the evaluation of the behavior of ultra-high performance concrete; it is new class of concrete that has been developed in recent decades. When compared with high performance concrete (HPC), Ultra High Performance Concrete tends to execute superior properties such as advanced strength, durability, high chemical resistance, very low porosity and long term stability.

The main thing that makes its different from conventional concrete is the use of steel fiber reinforcement, and some super plasticizers which give superior resistance to cracking and crack propagation. During the experiment work with specimen testing Ultra High Performance Concrete gave us very high compressive strengths, regardless of the curing treatment applied. The average 28 day compressive strength of submerged and air treated Ultra High Performance Concrete were found to be 70 N/mm2.

Durability testing has also demonstrated the enhanced characteristics of UHPC.Water absorption test also showed a superior performance of Ultra High Performance Concrete as compared to conventional concrete and found to be 7.2%..

Team : Om Narayan Singh, Singh, Ahmed Areeb, Akshsay Gupta, Raina Jain, Yogesh Joshi


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